Temper, metabolism, and self-medication may clarify use patterns amongst this inhabitants, in response to Rutgers analysis.
Individuals are drinking more caffeinated beverages than ever earlier than, however Rutgers researchers discovered one group that tops the charts in caffeine consumption: grownup people who smoke with psychological sickness.
In a research revealed on-line forward of print within the January challenge of the journal Psychiatry Analysis, Jill M. Williams, director of the division of habit psychiatry at Rutgers Robert Wooden Johnson Medical Faculty, discovered not solely do grownup people who smoke with bipolar dysfunction and schizophrenia drink essentially the most caffeine, they’re on the highest threat of adverse well being penalties.
“Caffeine is mostly thought-about secure and even has some well being advantages,” stated Williams. “However we simply don’t perceive the cognitive and psychiatric results of excessive caffeine consumption, particularly amongst people who smoke with psychological sickness.”
Caffeine is among the most generally used psychoactive medicine in the USA, with the primary results of elevated alertness, consideration, and vigilance. Whereas it’s thought-about secure for many wholesome adults to eat as much as 400 milligrams of caffeine per day – the equal of about 4 cups of brewed espresso – consuming greater than 600 milligrams isn’t really helpful and may result in anxiousness, insomnia, extra abdomen acid, and heartburn.
Little is known about caffeine’s influence on executive functions, such as reasoning and decision-making, and the studies that have been done have mostly included healthy adults without mental illness, Williams said. Even less is known about how high caffeine intake may impact psychiatric symptoms or sleep in adults with serious mental illness who smoke.
To address these gaps, Williams and colleagues from the Rutgers Department of Psychology and the University of California San Francisco School of Medicine analyzed data from 248 adult smokers recruited during a previous study. Participants were either outpatient smokers with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or from a control group with no psychiatric diagnoses. All participants were pack-a-day smokers.
At the beginning of the study, participants completed surveys on smoking history, caffeine use, physical health, and psychological symptoms. The researchers also collected blood samples to measure serum caffeine levels.
They found caffeine intake was highest among participants with bipolar disorder, followed by adults with schizophrenia. The control group consumed the least amount of caffeine.
Williams said there are several theories to explain the relationship between caffeine intake and mental illness. One is a well-established association between caffeine and smoking: People with mental illnesses smoke at rates two to three times higher than the general population, and because the tars in cigarette smoke increase the metabolism of caffeine, it takes more caffeine to achieve stimulating effects.
Another theory links high caffeine intake to adenosine receptors and supports a possible self-medication effect among people with mental illness, said Williams. People with mental illnesses also seem to have vulnerabilities to all types of addictive substances, putting them at higher risk for excess intake and more negative consequences. Additionally, the researchers found evidence that mood is linked to caffeine intake, especially bad mood.
Each of these explanations warrants further investigation, Williams said.
“Today, people consume huge amounts of caffeine in more concentrated forms – like energy drinks or double shots of espresso – far more than when our participants were surveyed,” she said. “And yet, the effects of high caffeine intake remain widely understudied. This is particularly true for people with mental illness.”
Reference: “Caffeine levels and dietary intake in smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder” by Rachel L. Rosen, Rahul S. Ramasubramani, Neal L. Benowitz, Kunal K. Gandhi and Jill M. Williams, 28 November 2022, Psychiatry Research.
Funding: National Institute of Mental Health, National institute on mental health