Micro/nanorobots with self-propelling and -navigating capabilities have attracted in depth consideration in drug supply and remedy owing to their controllable locomotion in hard-to-reach physique tissues.
Nonetheless, creating self-adaptive micro/nanorobots that may alter their driving mechanisms throughout a number of organic obstacles to succeed in distant lesions continues to be a problem.
Just lately, a analysis staff led by Prof. Lintao Cai from the Shenzhen Institute of Superior Know-how (SIAT) of the Chinese language Academy of Sciences has developed a twin-bioengine yeast micro/nanorobot (TBY-robot) with self-propelling and self-adaptive capabilities that may autonomously navigate to infected websites to offer gastrointestinal irritation remedy through enzyme-macrophage switching (EMS).
This examine was revealed on February 22 within the journal Science Advances.
The researchers constructed the TBY-robot by asymmetrically immobilizing glucose oxidase and catalase onto the surface of anti-inflammatory nanoparticle-packaged yeast microcapsules. At a homogeneous glucose concentration, the Janus distribution of enzymes can catalyze the decomposition of glucose to generate a local glucose gradient that induces TBY-robot self-propelling motion.
In the presence of an enteral glucose gradient, the oral TBY-robots move toward the glucose gradient to penetrate the intestinal mucus barrier and then cross the intestinal epithelial barrier by microfold cell transcytosis. “We found that TBY-robots effectively penetrated the mucus barrier and notably enhanced their intestinal retention using a dual enzyme-driven engine moving toward the enteral glucose gradient,” said Prof. CAI.
After in situ switching to the macrophage bioengine in Peyer’s patches, the TBY-robots autonomously migrate to inflamed sites of the gastrointestinal tract through chemokine-guided macrophage relay delivery. “Encouragingly, TBY-robots increased drug accumulation at the diseased site by approximately 1000-fold, markedly attenuating inflammation and ameliorating disease pathology in mouse models of colitis and gastric ulcers,” said Prof. CAI.
This twin-bioengine delivery strategy is a sequence-driven process using EMS, with Peyer’s patches as transfer stations. This process can precisely transport therapeutics across multiple biological barriers to distant, deep-seated disease sites.
“The transport route is similar to that of the Express Mail Service, which precisely delivers parcels to a distant destination using different transportation facilities,” said Prof. CAI. These self-adaptive TBY-robots represent a safe and promising strategy for the precision treatment of gastrointestinal inflammation and other inflammatory diseases.
Reference: “Twin-bioengine self-adaptive micro/nanorobots using enzyme actuation and macrophage relay for gastrointestinal inflammation therapy” by Baozhen Zhang, Hong Pan, Ze Chen, Ting Yin, Mingbin Zheng and Lintao Cai, 22 February 2023, Science Advances.